Glossary

Acid Free

A paper which does not contain any free acid. Special precautions are taken during manufacture to eliminate acid in order to increase the longevity of the finished paper and to provide a sheet that is suitable for contact with metals.
paper that lacks acid or acid-producing chemicals and because of the absence of this, the paper is more environmentally sound and is more stable over long periods of time.

Anti offset or set off spray
A fine powder that is sprayed on the sheet as it comes off the press to prevent the ink from transferring to the back side of the next sheet.

Antique Finish
Quality bulky paper, particularly opaque, with a rougher surface finish. It can be made in white or in colours, be deckle edged, and either laid or wove. A good printing surface is a feature of this grade which is often used for quality books.
A finish that gives the paper a natural rough surface. This finish is created by pressures being reduced when running on the paper machines and with little or no calendaring being done.


Archival Paper
Acid free paper used for documents that must last for long periods of time. The paper is manufactured to resist deterioration.

Aqueous Coating

A water based coating which is applied in the same manner as ink. It is used to protect and enhance the printed piece.

Backbone
Is the spin of a bound book, the part where the book is bound together

Blanket
Is a part used in an offset press which transfers the ink from the plate to the paper. Is normally made of a rubber coated fabric, rubber, or rexine.

Bleaching

Is the whitening process for pulp, brightens and whitens pulp. Various systems can be used such as ECF, TCF, PCF, see these definitions in their respective places in the glossary.

Bleed
Is when the printing extends beyond the area of the final trimmed product. This is done so that the product is trimmed through the colour allowing the colour to go all the way to the edge of the page without a gap.

Blind embossing
Blind embossing does not include the use of ink or foil to highlight the embossed area. The change in the dimensional appearance of the material is the only noticeable difference resulting from the embossing. The blind embossing process provides a clean and distinctive or subtle image on paper stock. It is best used to create a subtle impression or low level of attention to the piece, yet provide some slight form of differentiation for the finished work.

 

Blind image

An image that has been embossed, debossed, or stamped into the paper but has not been printed in any manner.

Board
Term applied to a paper above an accepted weight. The accepted cross-over point from paper to boards varies but in general would be around 180gsm. Below this weight are papers above this weight would be boards.

 

Bond Paper
A relatively high-grade paper stock generally used for letters, business forms, and copying. Some types of bond paper may have a rag content ranging from 25 percent to 100 percent.

Brightness
Refers to the percent of light reflected back from a sheet of paper as measured by a light meter reading. Contrast is reduced and highlights are not as strong when paper with a lower brightness is used for a printed piece.

Bulk
A term applied to the substance, thickness and feel of paper.

Calendered

Paper subjected to smoothing and polishing between stacks of highly polished steam rollers (calenders), which can form part of the dry end of the paper machine.

Caliper
Measurement of the thickness of paper, expressed in thousandths of an inch (points or mils). The calliper can also be expressed in pages per inch (ppi), pages per centimetre (ppc) or thousandths of a millimetre (microns). Calliper is also the name of the tool used to measure the thickness.

Cast coated
A method of drying coated paper by contact of the freshly coated surface with highly polished chromium plated heated surface. Cast coated papers have an extremely high gloss finish for top quality printing. The finish is obtained by the coating mix solidifying while in contact with the polished surface resulting in a similar polished surface to the paper.

Chain of Custody (Coca)

Chalking
A powdering effect left on the surface of the paper after improper drying of the ink or coating. This occurs when the pigment within the ink or coating does not bind successfully to the paper stock.

Chemical pulp
Pulp made by means of chemicals that dissolve the bonding agent, called lignin, within the wood to separate the fibres.

CMYK
The primary pigment colours used in 4 colour process printing and most desktop publishing programs. CMY are the subtractive primary colours and are used to reproduce full colour on the printed sheet. If these pigments are combined in equal amounts, black is supposed to be produced, but because of imperfections with the pigments, a muddy brown colour is produced. For that reason, black (represented by K) is added to give definition to colour reproduction and to create bolder text.

Chlorine bleaching

Chlorine free pulp

Coated paper
Coated stocks: A coated stock has a surface coating that has been applied to make the surface more receptive for the reproduction of text and images in order to achieve sharper detail and improved colour density. By adding a coated clay pigment, the objective of coating the stock is to improve the smoothness and reduce the absorbency. Coated paper finishes can be categorized as matte, dull, cast, gloss, and high gloss. The coating can be on both sides of the stock (coated two sides, “C2S”) or on one side only (coated one side, “C1S”). Coatings added to ground wood papers give them a greater degree of permanency and the natural tendency for goundwood papers to yellow is reduced.

Coating

The mixture of clay materials that are applied to paper to improve the smoothness of the paper’s surface and improves ink holdout during the printing process. 2. In reference to printing, it is a varnish, lacquer, emulsion or other layers added to a printed product to provide protection.

Colour Bars
Colour bars are also referred to as colour control bars, colour control strips, or proofing bars. Colour bars are rows of different colored patches printed in the trim area of the press sheet. They are used by proofers and press operators to control the trapping, ink density, dot gain, and print contrast of the proof or the printed sheet.

Commodity Papers
Paper that is average in quality and produced on very large paper machines at high volumes. It is generally easy to obtain and the price is economical.

Cover paper
Also known as Card Stock – A stiff heavyweight paper used when durability is a concern. It is used on items such as postcards, covers, menus, posters, announcements, folders and business cards. Some cover stocks have matching text or bond paper available.Cropmake an image or layout smaller by trimming off one or more of the edges. Cropping is done to focus attention on the main subject of the image by eliminate unwanted details form the outer edges.

Curl
The tendency for paper to be distorted and not lay flat when it encounters large changes in heat and humidity. Curl occurs either as roll set or structural curl. Roll set curl, which occurs across the grain of the sheet, is created as the result of the paper being formed and wrapped around a roll core in a circular production process.

Cyan
A shade of greenish-blue also known as process blue. It is one of the subtractive primary colours (the others are magenta and yellow) which form the basis of colour printing. Cyan is complementary to, or opposite of, the additive primary red. This is because cyan is formed when the additive primaries other than red, (green and blue) are mixed together.

Dandy roll

A roll that is located above the wet web of paper. It smoothes the top surface of the paper as it passes under the roll. A watermarking dandy roll has a skeletal structure which is covered with a wire cloth that has a design affixed to it. As the wet web of paper passes under the watermarking dandy roll, the design is impressed into the paper which results in a permanent watermark on the sheet.

Debossing

Debossing is the term used to describe the opposite process or effect, which involves applying pressure to the front side of a stock forcing the material away or down from the paper surface. Although it is not as commonly used as embossing, debossing is occasionally used to provide a different effect or appearance that fits a particular theme. A debossed image is shown below.

Deckle edge

Special effect used on paper where the edge of the paper looks untrimmed or torn. Used for aesthetic purposes. Generally used on formal stationery, invitations and announcements

Densitometer

Density is the level of darkness in a negative or positive film or print. The measurement of density is called densitometry. An instrument called a densitometer is used to measure the density. The density of a photographic positive or negative is a result of the amount of silver dye developed in the film or photographic paper. In printed copy, density is caused by the light-stopping ability of the pigments in the printing ink that are deposited on the paper by the printing process. Densitometers are widely used in the graphics industry to help control colour in each step of the printing process.

 

 

Die cutting

The main method or standard means of die cutting involves the use of metal dies to give paper or substrate products specific shapes or designs that cannot be accomplished by a straight cut on a web press or a guillotine cutter. By using knife-edge cutting blades formed into a pattern or die, a machine presses the die into the material to produce the desired shape. Almost any shape can be created and applied to a diverse array of raw materials. Labels, envelopes, folders, cartons, and documents are only a few of the many printed products that can be die cut for added functionality.The main method or standard means of die cutting involves the use of metal dies to give paper or substrate products specific shapes or designs that cannot be accomplished by a straight cut on a web press or a guillotine cutter.Die stampingProducing an image by stamping the printing material with a dieDigital PaperPapers that have been manufactured to meet the requirements for printing on digital equipment. They have a surface suitable to accept the inks and toners of the digital printers. They must also be of low moisture content to prevent the paper from curling when exposed to the high heat of some of the digital equipment.

Digital Printing

Any type of print reproduction method that utilizes electronic files to produce a printed piece from dots of ink, toner, or dye. The printed piece is created directly from a computer file without the need for film or conventional printing plates.

Direct Mail

Used to advertise a product or service offered by a company. The objective is to make an offer to the recipient and encourage a response to the offer. The mail package contains components such as response cards, envelopes, letters, brochures, coupons etc., generally mailed to a specific target audience.

 

Dot gain
When halftone dots print larger on the press than what they originally were on the plate or film, resulting in a loss of detail and lower contrast in the image. Dot gain occurs on every job to some degree. It is predictable to a point and can be compensated for when film and plates are produced Dot gain often occurs in long press runs, due to plates and/or pressure settings wearing or changing through out the run.

Dots per inch (dpi)
measurement of resolution of input devices, output devices and display devices. The measurement is stated with the horizontal measurement first and the vertical measurement second. The resolution of 800 x 600 indicates 800 dots per inch horizontally and 600 dots per inch vertically. 

 

Double Coated
Coating a paper twice on one side. Should not be confused with coating on both sides.

Dummy
A mock layout created to simulate the final product. The complexity of the dummy can range from a simple mockup showing size and with a hand drawn sketch of the layout to one showing all the details exactly as the finished product will appear.DuotoneAn electronic image in which the picture elements have only two intensity values; black and white. 2. In printing, a duotone is printed in two colours from plates that were made from films that had the screen angles different from each other.

Duplex Paper

A paper made by pasting two different thinner sheets together, resulting in paper with a different colour or finish on both sides.

Dye sublimation

Colour printing technology in which solid dye pigments are heated, changing them directly into a gas. When the dye, in the form of a gas, makes contact with a specially coated paper, it changes back into a solid. The individual spots of dye created with the thermal dye sublimation process blend together to make an almost continuous tone image similar to an actual photograph.

 

ECF
Elemental Chlorine Free – Pulp bleached without the use of Chlorine gas

Eco label

EMAS
Eco-Management and Audit Scheme – Is a management tool for companies and other organisations to evaluate report and improve their environmental performance. It is the European Unions regulated environmental management system.. Participating organisations regularly produce a public environmental statement that reports on their environmental performance. EMAS recognises organisations that go beyond minimum legal compliance and continuously improve their environmental performance.


Embossing
Often used in combination with foil stamping, embossing is a process that applies pressure to the backside of a material to alter the surface, giving it a three dimensional or raised effect. The procedure involves the use of two dies, one fitting into the other so that the raised die forces the stock into the recessed die to create the embossed impression. A die maker engraves the desired image, or copy, into several metal plates, which are the embossing dies for use on an embossing press. Generally, embossing is the process most often employed to attract attention or convey a high quality textural contrast in relation to the surrounding area of the stock. A thorough understanding of the process will allow for a more successful result. An embossed image is shown below.

Engraving
Printing plate, also called a die, that has had the image etched into the surface.
Environmental Management System (EMS)
EU – Eco Label

Fanfold

A term used to describe the method of folding continuous sheets into a stack. The continuous web of paper has tractor feedholes and perforations which are later detached to form individual sheets. The forms are folded back and forth on these perforations before detaching to make a large continuous stack. They are used in impact printers and some laser printers.
Felt
Felt is a soft texture on uncoated paper that is created during the papermaking process with a either felt covered roller or with a rubber roller with a felt pattern that creates the finish. It can also be accomplished as an offline process. The felt finish does not affect the strength of the paper.

Fibre
Thread-like particles used in making wood pulps.

Fine Papers
Category of paper that includes grades for writing and printing as opposed to the more coarse and industrial grades of paper. Also referred to as graphic and cultural papers.

Finishing
Operations which happen to a document after it has left the press or printer. The finishing operations could include bindery work, such as folding, trimming, binding, die cutting, inserting or any post press process that must be completed

Flexography
A printing process using a raised surface on a flexible plate, often made of a rubber-like material, mounted on a rotary letterpress. Flexographic inks are very thin, watery inks that dry very quickly. The flexible plate makes it possible to print on irregular surfaces such as aluminum cans, coffee mugs, or corrugated cardboard.

Foil Stamping
When a print project needs an elegant, non-tarnishing metallic finish to be applied to paper or a similar substrate, it’s easily accomplished using a process referred to as foil stamping or hot stamping. The reproduction of graphics such as logos, polished metal, or highlighted spot areas requiring a high quality reflective image can be effectively achieved by using foil films rather than metallic inks for the end result. Metallic inks, which are similar to standard printing inks, provide a subdued metallic appearance. The natural tendency of the ink to be absorbed into the stock contributes to a duller looking effect.Foil stamping or hot stamping (as it is called when heat is applied) requires a metal plate with an engraved image. The plate strikes a foil film, transferring the foil coating from the roll film onto the substrate that is to be imprinted. The substrate then receives the high-density metallic finish, resulting in a reflective image with a bright and dense metallic appearance. A wide selection of foil colours, finishes, and effects are available such as gold, silver, and colored metallics; marble, leather, wood, snakeskin, and pearl finishes; and geometric multi-dimensional patterns.

Folio Size
Any size sheet that is 17″ x 22″ or larger.

French Fold

A sheet which has been printed on one side only and then folded twice in right angles to form a four page uncut section.

FSC
FSC (The Forest Stewardship Council®) is an independent, non-governmental, not for profit organization established to promote the responsible management of the world’s forests. Products carrying the FSC label are independently certified to assure consumers that they come from forests that are managed to meet the social, economic and ecological needs of present and future generations.

Gatefold

When both sides of an oversize page fold into the gutter in overlapping layers.

Gloss Paper

Gloss can refer to the reflectivity of paper itself or of the printed result on it. Gloss of paper is measured by using a Gardner gloss meter, which measures reflected light at an angle of 75 degrees, and is expressed in Gardner gloss units – the higher the number the glossier the paper surface.Paper with a gloss finish, usually used for higher quality printing

Ghosting

A faint image on a printed sheet appearing in an area where it was not intended. Mechanical ghosting develops a repeat image on the same side of the sheet due to a press condition, such as blanket problems and ink starvation. Chemical ghosting develops as an image on the back side of a sheet, transferred from the front of the sheet below and occurs during the drying of the ink on paper.

Gradient
A gradual changing of screen densities which creates a blending from light to dark, or dark to light.

 

 

 

Grain
In a negative, print, or transparency, the visual appearance or texture created by the silver particles on the film. Frequently considered undesirable and apparent when an original is enlarged too much. 2. In paper, the direction in which the fibres line up during the manufacturing process. It is easier to fold, bend, or tear the paper along the same direction of the fibres. Cut sheet laser printers generally use long grain paper in which the grain runs parallel to the long side of the paper, resulting in better performance through the laser printer.

Grippers
Metal finger like clamps that grab the paper to pull it through the press as the sheet is being printed.

 

Grain direction
During manufacture the fibres in a web of paper naturally take up an alignment roughly parallel to the direction of travel of the web on the papermaking machine and this becomes the grain direction. Once guillotined down to sheet form, papers are called ‘long grain’ if the fibres are parallel to the long edge of the sheet, or short grain if parallel to the short edge.
Grain direction can affect stiffness, folding, creasing and printing characteristics.

Grammage/GSM
These all mean ‘grams per square metre’ and are a measure of the weight of a paper. For example if an 80gsm paper was in a sheet size of 1000mm x 1000mm i.e. a square metre one sheet would weigh 80 grams.

Gravure
The process of printing from an etched copper cylinder or wraparound plate that contain cells that hold the ink for transfer to the substrate. In gravure colour printing, each succeeding colour is printed on a dry colour, rather than one still wet as in offset lithography.

Ground wood pulp
A wood pulp that contains the natural wood impurities and has not been chemically processed. Also known as mechanical pulp.

Halftone

A continuous tone image that has been photographed or scanned and then converted into tiny dots whose variations in size create the appearance of variations in tone. Light areas, or highlights, have small dots and darker areas, or shadows, have larger dots.

Hickeys
A spot on a printed sheet caused by dust, lint or ink imperfections; particularly noticeable on solids and half tones.

 

High bulk Paper

Paper that is relatively thick in comparison to its basis weight. High bulk paper lacks compactness and will yeild fewer sheets per inch than a lower bulk paper

Holdout

Holdout refers to the property of ink remaining on the surface of the paper rather than soaking in. A coated glossy paper has a high holdout rate while a paper stock such as newsprint or 20 lb.

Inkjet

A printing technology in which liquid ink is sprayed through tiny nozzles onto the paper in a pattern of dots, forming the image on the paper. The ink being sprayed from the nozzles is controlled by a computer.

ISO

International Standards Organization – An international organization composed of interested parties in many countries who work together to create standards for such areas as communications and computers.

ISO 14001

The International Organisation for Standards

ISO is a worldwide organization that develops many different kinds of Standards.  ISO 14001

Specifies the requirements for an EMS which provides a framework for an organisation to control the environmental impact of its activities, and to continually improve their environmental performance.

ISO 9706

 

Indigo

A specialized printing press with the ability to print without films and plates, enabling you to create personalized short runs, changing text, images and jobs without having to stop the press. Each press has up to 7 colour stations, which can use cyan, magenta, yellow, black and a variety of special and spot colour inks, such as white, UV red and transparent

No glossary items available for ‘J’

Kiss Cut

To die cut the top layer but not the backing of self-adhesive paper.

Kraft Paper

A sturdy brown paper with a high-pulp content used for wrapping paper, grocery bags, and some varieties of envelopes.

Lacquer
A clear resin/solvent coating applied to the surface of the paper to add protection from grease and water. It also provides the paper a heat sealing property and gives it a glossy finish.

Laid
A laid finish has the appearance of translucent lines running horizontally and vertically in the paper. It is produced during the papermaking process with a special roller that creates the pattern in the wet paper.

Landscape
Printing a page so that when positioned for reading the width is greater than the height.LaserLight Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. An intense beam of light that is capable of transmitting images by means of digital data.

Laser paper
Paper that has been manufactured to provide optimal performance when running through a laser printer or copier. It has low moisture content to prevent the paper from curling when exposed to the high heat from the laser printers.

 


Ledger paper
A paper that is heavier and stiffer than a bond paper and most commonly manufactured in a weight range of 24# to 36#. It is more durable and capable of standing up to excessive handling.

Letterpress
Printing method in which the wrong reading image or type is raised above the surface of the printing plate. The plate is then inked and pressed directly onto the paper, resulting in a right reading image.

Linen finish
Linen finished paper resembles linen cloth and is usually produced after the papermaking process as an offline embossing process.

Long GrainWhen the fibres in paper run parallel to the long dimension of the paper. For 8 1/2″ x 11″, long grain would mean the grain runs the 11″ direction. Also referred to as grain long.

Machine coated
Paper that has the coating applied while on the paper machine at the paper mill.

Make ready

The process of setting up and adjusting a printing press for a particular ink, paper and specifications prior to printing. This includes adjusting the infeed, grippers and guides, adjusting ink for proper coverage, registering copy, and matching the printed piece with the proof to be sure everything is correct. Also referred to as set up. 2. The paper used while making all the necessary adjustments before printing the actual run. Also referred to as set up.

Mask

Using an opaque material to block out an area of an image or negative to prevent light exposure in that area.

 

 

Matt finish
Coated paper with a dull smooth finish.

Mechanical pulp
Pulp produced using a non-chemical process and instead using a grinding process. Papers made from mechanical pulp often have good opacity and bulk but yellow more quickly than paper produced from chemically made pulp. Newspapers are often printed on papers having a proportion of mechanical pulp.  

Metallic Paper
Paper coated with a thin film containing metal or a thin film of plastic whose colour and gloss simulate metal.

Micrometer
An instrument used to determine thickness

Micron
A unit of measure equal to one millionth of a meter or .00004″.

Mock Up
A rough visual of how a finished document will appear.

Mottle
Spotty or speckled printing due to uneven ink absorption. 2. Paper manufactured with a trace of heavily dyed fibres which are a different colour than the paper. Also referred to as granite paper.

NCR

An acronym meaning ‘no carbon required’ referring to a non-carbonless paper originally introduced by the National Cash Register Company but which is now more commonly referred to as carbonless paper.

Newsprint

Coarse grade of paper used mostly for printing newspapers. It is made from mostly wood pulp. It has a dot gain of 20% or more.

Offset Paper
Paper that has been manufactured with properties that make the paper suitable for offset printing. Some of the properties include dimensional stability, resistance to curling, high surface strength a surface free from foreign particles and a high level of resistance to moisture penetration.

Offset Printing
The transfer of an inked image from a plate to a blanket cylinder, which in turn transfers the image to the printing material as it passes between the blanket and the impression cylinder and pressure is applied. Also referred to as offset lithography.

Opacity

The extent to which a paper is capable of obscuring matter printed on the other side or on an underlying page. A paper with good opacity is one on which the printing on one side cannot be seen from the other under normal conditions. Usually expressed as a percentage (%).Opacity is the measure (percent) of the amount of light passing through a sheet of paper. Some papers have more fibres and/or fillers and as a result are more opaque than others. Papers containing more fibres and fillers have the ability to hold a printed image without showing through to the backside as easily as papers without as many fibres and fillers. Just because a paper is thicker does not guarantee that it is more opaque than a thinner paper. Some thinner papers may be more opaque because there are a greater number of fibres and/or fillers in their composition.OverprintingPrinting an image over an area that has already been printed. In printing colour process colours, one process colour is printed over another creating a secondary colour, which is a combination of two primary colours.

Palette

Selection of colours available to use by a graphics program or an application program. 2. A graphical user interface in the form of a small window that “holds” tools, colours, patterns, etc. for easy access.

Pantone matching system (PMS)

Registered name for an ink colour matching system used to compare, match and identify specific colours.

Parchment

A paper finish that has an old or antique appearance and is the result of washing sulphuric acid over the paper and then quickly neutralizing the acid wash. This process melts the outer paper fibres which fill the voids in the rest of the paper. Parchment is very durable and grease resistant.

PEFC

The PEFC Council (the Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification schemes) is the worldwide organisation promoting sustainable forest management through forest certification and labelling of forest based products. Products with PEFC claim and / or label deliver confidence that raw material originates in sustainably managed forest.Perfect binding

type of binding where the book or magazine’s binding edge is ground down and coated with a fast drying glue to hold pages together and then are affixed to a cover with a flexible adhesive. This creates a squared off back.

 

PH

The degree of acidity or alkalinity of the paper. Also, pH is measured in the fountain solutions that are used when printing the paper on the press. Measured on a scale of 0 to 14, pH7 being neutral, pH above that is alkaline and below that is acidic.

PMS

The Pantone Matching System® is the industry standard for selecting, matching, and mixing colour. The Pantone System utilizes 11 basic colours to achieve over 1000 different colours that are used by printers and art departments. The basic colours that are used are yellow, warm red, rubine red, rhodamine red, purple, violet, reflex blue, process blue, green, black, and transparent white, which looks clear. The Pantone Matching System® Colour Guide is an indispensable tool for printers and designers.

Portrait

The orientation of sheets of paper, with the long dimension of the page running vertical.

Post consumer waste

Material discarded after consumer use such as old magazines, old telephone directories, and residential mixed paper.

Prepress

All of the functions, such as composition, camera work, colour separating, stripping, plate making and any other function required to prepare for the actual printing of the order.

Process colours

Creating colour images by combining four standard printing inks (cyan, yellow, magenta and black) in a manner that allows almost all colours to be reproduced.

Pulp

Cellulose fibre material from which paper is made. The cellulose fibre can come from wood, straw, cotton, hemp, bamboo, reeds and various other materials. It can be produced by mechanically or chemically means.

Pre consumer waste

Material that was discarded before it was ready for consumer use.

No glossary items available for ‘Q’

Ream

500 sheets of paper, regardless of the paper’s size or weight.

Ream wrapped
500 sheets of paper that has been wrapped in individual packages

Recycled

Recycled paper
Paper recycling is the process of recovering waste paper and remaking it into new paper products. There are three categories of paper that can be used for making recycled paper: mill broke, pre-consumer waste, and post-consumer waste.

 

Register
Aligning the images of each colour so that they are printed in the proper location on the paper. 2. Aligning one part of a form with the next so that all parts are aligned. All parts must be in register so that when the form is imprinted or filled out, the impression will transfer to the proper location on each part.

Register marks
The printed marks used to align colour separations for printing so that each colour registers with each other.
Rub proof.

Saddle stitching

The method of binding the pages of a section where the folded pages are stitched through the fold from the outside, using a wire staple.

Satin finish paper

Paper that has had a smooth finish applied.

Scaling

The process of calculating the amount of enlargement or reduction necessary to get an image to fit into an area of the layout.

Scoring

Scoring is the term applied to the process that places a crease in paper stocks and other substrates allowing the material to be folded. A score may be used to crease the cover of a publication, provide areas for folding a document allowing insertion into an envelope, create heavy creases in shipping cartons to allow easy assembly of the carton, and numerous other applications.

Screen printing

Screen printing has been used for centuries and although there have been many improvements with the technology, the process still consists of forcing ink through a stencil covered fabric or wire mesh which has been mounted in a sturdy frame. The ink goes through only the open areas of the stencil and is deposited onto a printing surface positioned below the frame. Screen printing is very versatile and it is often the only printing process capable of handling certain applications.

 

 

Screen ruling

The number of lines of dots per inch, both vertically and horizontally, on a screen tint or halftone screen.

Set off

The transfer of ink from one side of the printed sheet to the back side of the sheet on top of it due to the ink not properly drying before the sheets come in contact with each other.

Shadow

The darkest area in a photograph or illustration

Short Grain

When the fibres in paper run perpendicular to the long dimension of the paper. For 8 1/2″ x 11″, short grain would mean the grain runs the 8 1/2″ direction. Also referred to as grain short.Show through

When the printing from the other side of the paper can be seen through the paper. This problem can be reduced if a paper with more opacity is used.

Silk Screen Printing

Printing process that uses a stencil that is mounted on stretched silk. Ink is pressed through the silk in the open areas of the stencil to create an image on the substrate being printed.

Slit Back

A slit in the liner of a pressure sensitive label, used to assist in the removal of the face stock from the liner. Also referred to as split back and back slit.

Smoothness

A smooth finish is the result of the paper passing through sets of rollers during the papermaking process. This process is known as calendaring.

Specs

Specifications, a complete description of the features of a product, such as type size and style, ink colours, paper type, quantity to be produced, and other special features.

Spiral binding

Book binding that consists of a spiral wire or plastic that is wound through holes. Also referred to as coil binding.

Supercalendered

An additional papermaking process where the paper runs through a set of alternating steel and fibre covered rollers. Supercalendering produces a very smooth thin sheet.

Sustainable

TCF

Totally Chlorine Free – The pulp is bleached not using chlorine chemicals

Tack

The stickiness of ink required to adhere properly to the type of substrate being printed on.

Thermography

Thermography is the process of spreading thermal powders on the wet ink of a print application and heating it in order to melt the powder into a single solid mass which is raised above the printed surface. It is also known as “imitation engraving”, however an engraving die is not needed with thermography. The process is faster than engraving and it is less expensive.

Thickness

In regard to paper it is measured in thousandths of an inch. In regard to a rule it is measured in point size.

Transparent ink

Ink that allows the paper or previously printed ink colours to show through.

Translucent paper

Thin paper that does not have the same clarity as acetate, but can be used as an overlay allowing any content placed immediately beneath it to be viewed with some lack of clarity. The stock is most often used for business forms or for blueprint work. Basis weights are generally 11lb., 13 lb., 15 lb. and 16 lb.

Trapping

The overlapping of adjoining colours or ink to help prevent the possibility of a fine white area showing between colours due to misregistration of colour negatives or due to normal variations on the press.

Uncoated paper

Paper that has no coated pigment applied to reduce the absorbency or increase the smoothness. The uncoated finishes can be described as vellum, antique, wove, or smooth.

UV ink

100% solid ink, solvent free, cured by ultra violet lights

UV drying

A method of drying process colour inks on high speed presses using ultraviolet radiation

Varnishing

Thin, liquid protective coating, either matte or glossy, that is applied to the product. It adds protection and enhances the appearance of the product. It can be applied as an all over coating or it can be applied as a spot coating.

Vellum finish

Vellum finish has an eggshell appearance and is consistent and even but not as much as a smooth finish. Vellum is one of the most popular uncoated finishes and paper with this finish has a high ink absorbency rate.Paper with a vellum finish. Its finish is relatively absorbent, making a good printing surface

Washup

The cleaning of an ink unit on a press to get it ready to change to a different colour.

Watermark

True- translucent image created in the paper on the paper machine, with the use of a dandy roller. The image is generally the name of the paper or a company logo and can be viewed from both sides of the paper. Also referred to as a genuine watermark.Artificial watermarks are applied after the paper has been manufactured. They simulate a true watermark but are only visible on the side that the watermark is applied. They can be applied by the paper manufacturer or by the forms manufacturer.

Well managed forest

Whiteness

The paper’s ability to reflect all colours of light the same.

Woodfree

 

Work and tumble

A printing method where different pages are assembled so that they are on one plate. One side is printed and the sheet is turned from front to rear so that you are using the opposite edge as the gripper edge and then the second side is printed. The product is then cut apart to make two finished items.

Work and turn

Printing method where different pages are assembled so that they are on one plate. One side is printed and then the sheet is turned over so that you are using the same gripper edge and then the second side is printed. The product is then cut apart to make two finished items.

Wove paper

An even finish in uncoated paper with a slight texture made by a felt roller covered in woven wire

Paper with a wove finish. One of the most common papers used for general printing.

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